Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. A thoroughly revised, in-depth guide to water and wastewater engineering This fully updated guide integrates water theory with practical strategies, design techniques, and real-world applications. Designed for both students and professionals, the book covers all aspects of water and wastewater engineering as well as water treatment and facility design. You will get new information on water quality standards, corrosion control, piping materials, and energy efficiency. Water and Wastewater Engineering, Second Edition opens with a review of environmental engineering fundamentals before moving on to cover advanced water treatment processes, including reverse osmosis, membrane filtration, UV disinfection, and biological nutrient removal. A new case study analyzing the water contamination in Flint, MI helps to demonstrate the concepts covered. .Explains the latest technologies, regulations, and climate issues .Contains a brand-new chapter on direct and indirect potable reuse .Written by an experienced environmental engineering educator
Survey was conducted in Mizan Aman district on socio economic problems toward dairy cattle productivity with the aim to gather information on dairy market problem, infrastructure effect, institutional effect and capital problem exist in the district. Market problems exist in the district were due to low production of milk, absence of milk collection system and milk treatment facility and none employment opportunity for the society in the sector. The house generally was not comfortable for cattle management (cleaning, oestrus detection, supply of feed and water, milking, inspecting illness etc). Poor road system was observed in the district. Though enough health clinics were available in the district, it lacks professionals and service regarding to vaccination. Lack of giving training and advisory for the farmers was attributed to institutional problem. Weaknesses in making farmer cooperative in the sector were observed. The farmers do not use credit services from institutions offering as they don t have trust on the system. All of these problems hampered dairy cattle development in this district.
Membrane processes are of increased interest in water and wastewater treatment, food, biotechnological, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries, because of their versatility and effectiveness. However, a common problem encountered during the application of membrane filtration is membrane fouling. Membrane fouling results in increased operating costs due to the higher pressures required to maintain permeate flux, the time and materials needed for membrane cleaning, and membrane replacement. This study systematically investigated the mechanism and efficiency of an innovative ultrasonic technique to control ceramic membrane fouling caused by silica particles and dissolved organic matter. It was found that ultrasound reduced membrane fouling significantly. Based on the mechanistic understanding of the sono-physical and sono-chemical effects of ultrasound, the technical guidelines were proposed to optimize the ultrasonic efficiency to improve the performance of membrane filtration. This study should be especially useful to professionals in water and wastewater treatment, membrane manufactures, or anyone else who may be interested in utilizing ultrasound in engineering processes.
In spite of great knowledge on the existing biological water treatment processes, the development of innovative processes among which the photocatalysis is continuously growing since the 80s. In fact, certain chemicals, mostly from synthetic chemistry, are not or could only be biodegraded under very critical conditions. They are called biorecalcitrant and, once they get into normal biological treatment plants, they very often pass over them without being degraded. Photocatalytic processes had shown to effectively degrade many of such chemicals and, if the sun: an environmental friendly source of energy is used, such process could become efficient and then be widely used over the world particularly in developing countries. The model has been implemented with designed prototypes and following problem solving approaches as well in a high tech environment (Switzerland) as in a low cost one (Burkina Faso) where direct sunlight had been used. The lessons learned from this work can be used to increase knowledge of professionals of water treatment sector and environmentalists in developing countries, it also offers to young scientists, a pedagogical approach of conducting academic research
Exploration, production, refining, storage, transportation, distribution and utilization of petroleum hydrocarbons have brought about frequent occurrences of water and soil contamination with hydrocarbon. The pollution of the environment increases as petroleum hydrocarbon inevitably continues to be used as the principle source of energy. This book is the product of rigorous research and professional application of civil, chemical, environmental, oil and gas engineering to water, wastewater, petroleum, industrial and municipal pressing problems that often confronts humanity and the environment. The book explained broad natural and constructed wetlands fundamental but focuses on the design, operation, management and treatment performance of hybrid constructed wetlands as a simple, low cost alternative to challenging wastewater or pollution problems such as oil spills, refinery and industrial effluents. The book covers industrial wastewater treatment and environmental engineering principles and applications for the interests of engineers, environmentalists, scientists, academics, researchers, students, governmental, non-governmental organizations, consultants and other professionals.
Colloids refer to particles or macromolecules with at least one dimension of 1nm~1µm. A wide range of environmental particles fall within this category including microorganisms, nanoparticles, and mineral precipitates. Understanding colloid fate and transport in porous medium not only permits more effective protection of water supplies, but also allows for the development of more effective pollutant remediation strategies. Organic matter (OM) complicates colloid behaviour. To date the influence of OM on colloid mobility in porous media has been largely qualitative. This book presents research leading to the development of multiple-pulse column techniques that may be integrated with mathematical models to quantify the effects of OM on particulate colloid attenuation in saturated porous medium. Research has investigated how two groups of environmental organic compounds, humic acids and proteins, influence particulate colloid attenuation by saturated sand. Study findings may shed light on complex colloidal behaviour in organic matter impacted environment and be useful to professionals in contaminant hydrogeology, environmental remediation, and wastewater treatment.
This Book is a study which includes environmental planning and education in the field of drinking water sustainable development. The book is based on the European Union Erasmus+ Project "Implementation of ECVET for Qualification Design in Drinking Water Treatment Plants and Sanitation for Pure Drinkable Water - PureH2O". In the 9th development plan (2013-2020) of Turkey, one of the development axes in its main objectives is protecting the environment and improving the urban infrastructure. The rationale of the project is enhancing the quality and performance of VET system improving education in drinking water supply and development. It can be achieved through promoting creativity, innovation and transfer of EQF/NQF principles in education of the main target group in the sector. The project promotes application of instruments such as EUROPASS, EQF and ECVET. They all need to be tested on a broad basis at various countries and sectors in order to check their feasibility and practical application. This innovative practice is of mutual importance for Turkey and EC countries and is a complex one in respect to the type of the target professionals, working in this area.
Water pollution is a global problem which requires ongoing evaluation of water treatment technologies. Traditional water treatment is not enough effective to eliminate pollutants having environmental, ecotoxicological and human health risk. Such contaminants are e.g. pharmaceuticals, widely used by humans and thus present in surface and drinking waters. Consequently, additional techniques, such as Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), are needed to be integrated in the traditional processes. Beside highly reactive hydroxyl radical, several reactive species form during the application of AOPs. However, only a few data are given concerning the reactions of these species. This work presents their role and importance, investigated during the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of four selected drugs. Thus, suggestions could be put forward concerning the effects of different parameters on the radical set and on the role of various reactive species on the transformation of the studied drugs. These results could contribute to improve the efficiency of AOPs and therefore may be useful for both newcomers and professionals working in the field of water cleaning or interested in reaction mechanisms.
Increasing the availability of wastewater treatment is an important issue to preserve the environmental development. The sewage treated should be discharged safely to the water courses according to governmental standard or even to pave a way to the next treatment level in aiming for water reuse. Challenge of such treatment is to reduce the investment cost of the applied system. This book presents an effective design regarding the low investment and proposes a new system using a gradual concentric chamber (GCC) reactor for treating low-strength wastewater. A clear and odorless effluent for the purpose of reuse either in agriculture or in industrial process is an advantage compared to a treatment which only works anaerobically. Its simplicity is also valuable from the economical point of view thus the GCC technology would be of particular interest as an alternative solution for domestic sewage treatment. This book is primarily targeted to beginners as well as environmental professionals who are directly involved in water treatment. It is, therefore, written as a textbook for senior undergraduates and graduate students as well as a reference book for general reader.