Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Water Treatment ab 48.99 € als Taschenbuch: Phenol degradation using advanced oxidation process employing titania nanoparticles. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Technik,
Nanotechnology is a major scientific and economic growth area across the globe. In recent years, with the advent of nanotechnology, application of TiO2 nanoparticles in sunscreens & cosmetics, paints & coatings, water treatment, antimicrobial agents, health care products such as bandages and manufacturing of energy storage devices is paramount. It confers significant release of these nanoparticles into environment thereby raising concerns about their adverse impact on the ecosystem. Although there are studies reporting the ecotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles, reports on toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles on ecosystem engineers such as earthworms are scarce. In this regard, the book presents vital aspects of TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity in earthworm Eisenia fetida. It depicts the significance of physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in eliciting oxidative stress in earthworms. It disseminates knowledge about ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticles thereby assisting in environmental monitoring of nanowaste in future.
Colloids refer to particles or macromolecules with at least one dimension of 1nm~1µm. A wide range of environmental particles fall within this category including microorganisms, nanoparticles, and mineral precipitates. Understanding colloid fate and transport in porous medium not only permits more effective protection of water supplies, but also allows for the development of more effective pollutant remediation strategies. Organic matter (OM) complicates colloid behaviour. To date the influence of OM on colloid mobility in porous media has been largely qualitative. This book presents research leading to the development of multiple-pulse column techniques that may be integrated with mathematical models to quantify the effects of OM on particulate colloid attenuation in saturated porous medium. Research has investigated how two groups of environmental organic compounds, humic acids and proteins, influence particulate colloid attenuation by saturated sand. Study findings may shed light on complex colloidal behaviour in organic matter impacted environment and be useful to professionals in contaminant hydrogeology, environmental remediation, and wastewater treatment.
Phenolic compounds are widely used and consequently have become one of the common pollutants in aquatic environment. Chlorophenols are used directly as pesticides or converted into pesticides. They also have been used as antiseptics. In addition to being produced commercially, small amounts of some chlorophenols may be produced when wastewater or drinking water is disinfected with chlorine. Chlorophenols cause serious environmental problems because these are difficult to decomposed biologically, and are mutagenic as well as carcinogenic in nature. Nanoparticles synthesized in the lab were successfully employed for the photocatalytic degradation of phenolic compounds. Upto 98% of phenolic complounds could be mineralized by photocatalytic degradation using silver-doped titania.
Photocatalysis plays an important role in dealing with today's challenges demand for drinking water and waste water treatment technology. This work involves two directions to improve photocatalytic efficiency with economical benefits by different modification methods. One is the preparation of nanosphere and mesoporous titania nanoparticles. The other, a magnetic photocatalyst was prepared by coating of spinel cobalt ferrite as magnetic core with an insulating silica layer and photocatalytic properties of the outer titanium dioxide shell. Utilization of solar energy for the environmental cleanup becomes the future goal of the scientists. New visible light magnetic - titania photocatalysts that contain a small band gap semiconductor coupling open up new possibilities for the development of solar-induced, separation and recyclability photocatalytic materials.
In the area of water purification, nanotechnology offers the possibility of an efficient removal of pollutants and germs. Globally, water scarcity is one of the foremost health and environmental challenges faced. Today nanoparticles, nanomembrane and nanopowder used for detection and removal of chemical and biological substances include metals such as copper, lead, nickel, zinc, bacteria, parasites and antibiotics. Nanomaterials reveal good result than other techniques used in water treatment because of its high surface area (surface/volume ratio). It is suggested that these may be used in future at large scale water purification. Electrospinning technique has drawn a lot of interests from many researchers these days. One of the advantages of this technique is in effectively preparing nano size fibers from various organic and inorganic materials which do not form fibers by conventional methods. Nanofibers prepared using electrospinning have been used in many applications due to their large surface area and porous structure.
Nanotechnology is an innovative research area which is being integrated with many other fields. Photocatalytic nanoparticles are of great concern now days, Titania being extensively studied one. It is being used for pollution remediation from air and water. The objective of the research was to develop sustainable technology for water disinfection. Modified Titania is used in the study which can disinfect water under visible light. Background theory is discussed in chapter 1 which also provides the achieved objectives. Chapter 2 describes the detailed knowledge of photocatalysis and severity of water contamination by bacteria. Chapter 3 discusses the detailed methodology adopted to achieve the objectives and evaluation procedure for the material. In chapter 4, obtained results are elaborated in great details and chapter 5 consists the drawn conclusions and further studies to be conducted. This book is a useful tool for the students and the researchers interested to proceed for drinking water treatment from contamination using photocatalytic nanoparticles.
Drinking water in Egypt is provided by the Nile river. Aluminum sulfate are widely used as coagulants in the drinking water treatment processes in Egypt. Residual aluminum may cause several environmental consequences. Hematite nanoparticles have been used as coagulant in water treatment to avoid residual aluminum problems. There is a comparison between hematite nanoparticles and alum in coagulation process for drinking water treatment. Raw water samples were collected from Nile river Rosetta branch at Basyoun city at the uptake site of Basyoun's drinking water company. Hematite nanoparticles satisfy many crucial requirements including non-toxicity, indefinite stability, low cost and ease of production. In this study, experiments were conducted on nanoparticle of hematite ability as coagulant for drinking water treatment. The results show that the highest turbidity removal by hematite nanoparticles of values up to (93.8)%.
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals in water have negative impacts on human health and environmental ecology. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are currently enjoying a wide range of applications in water treatment. However, these MNPs are not selective to target specific contaminants in complex water matrices. Sorbents that can selectively remove these compounds from drinking water based on their chemical functionality would have a significant health benefit to humans and wildlife. In this work, polydopamine-coated and polypyrrole-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs@PDA and MNPs@PPy) were evaluated as two sorbents for the extraction of bisphenol A (BPA), metformin (MF), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), phenformin (PF), triclosan (TC) and quinine sulfate (QS). Both in-capillary and in-vitro binding efficiencies were determined using capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection (CE-UV). Compared to unmodified MNPs and MNPs@PDA, MNPs@PPy showed higher binding efficiencies. In-capillary binding efficiencies of MNPs@PPy were found to be 99 ± 1% for BPA, PF, TC, and QS. These results were confirmed by in-vitro binding tests.